Methods of System Identification for Studying Information Processing in Sensory Systems
Surprisingly, we find that for a fixed contrast of the white noise odor waveforms, the nonlinear block of each of the two models changes with the mean input concentration. The shape of the nonlinearities of both the 1D and the 2D LNP model appears to be, for a fixed mean of the odor waveform, independent of the stimulus contrast.
This suggests that white noise system identification of Or59b OSNs only depends on the first moment of the odor concentration. Finally, by comparing the 2D Encoding Manifold and the 2D LNP model, we demonstrate that the OSN identification results depend on the particular type of the employed test odor waveforms.
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This suggests an adaptive neural encoding model for Or59b OSNs that changes its nonlinearity in response to the odor concentration waveforms. References  Anmo J. Kim, Aurel A.
Lazar and Yevgeniy B. Population responses of cortical neurons encode considerable details about sensory stimuli, and the encoded information is likely to change with stimulus context and behavioral conditions. The details of encoding are difficult to discern across large sets of single neuron data because of the complexity of cortical receptive fields. To overcome this problem, we used the method of stimulus reconstruction to study how complex sounds are encoded in primary auditory cortex AI. This method employs a linear spectro-temporal model to map neural population responses to an estimate of the stimulus spectrogram, thereby enabling a direct comparison between the original stimulus and its reconstruction.
We demonstrate the value of this approach to identify cortical function by assessing the fidelity of such reconstructions from responses to modulated noise stimuli, thus estimating the range over which AI neurons can faithfully encode spectro-temporal features. For stimuli containing statistical regularities typical of those found in complex natural sounds , we find that knowledge of these regularities substantially improves reconstruction accuracy over reconstructions that do not take advantage of this prior knowledge.
Progress in Sensory Physiology
Furthermore, contrasting stimulus reconstructions under different behavioral states reveals a novel view of the rapid changes in spectro-temporal response properties induced by attentional and motivational state. Finally, we employ this method to explore the robustness of auditory cortical responses to environmental noise in the encoding of complex sounds such as speech. Odorants are represented as spatiotemporal patterns of spikes in neurons of the antennal lobe AL; insects and olfactory bulb OB; vertebrates. However, activating the AL directly with simple pulses of current evoked responses in AL neurons that were much less diverse, complex, and enduring than responses elicited by odorants.
Similarly, models of the AL driven by simplistic inputs generated relatively simple output.
How then are dynamic neural codes for odors generated? Consistent with recent results from several other species, our recordings from locust ORNs showed a great diversity of temporal structure. Furthermore, we found that, viewed as a population, many response features of ORNs were remarkably similar to those observed within the AL. Using a set of computational models constrained by our electrophysiological recordings, we found that the temporal heterogeneity of responses of ORNs critically underlies the generation of spatiotemporal odor codes in the AL.
A test then performed in vivo confirmed that, given temporally homogeneous input, the AL cannot create diverse spatiotemporal patterns on its own; however, given temporally heterogeneous input, the AL generated realistic firing patterns. Finally, given the temporally structured input provided by ORNs, we clarified several separate, additional contributions of the AL to olfactory information processing.
Progress in Sensory Physiology 9 - Semantic Scholar
Other ascending pathways may also transmit nociceptive information, but many studies show that the STT plays an important role. Visceral pain is commonly referred to overlying somatic structures.
The pain of angina pectoris can be sensed over a wide area of the thorax: in the retrosternal, precordial anterior thoracic, and anterior cervical regions of the chest; in the left or sometimes even the right shoulder, arm, wrist, or hand; or in the jaw and teeth Harrison and Reeves Read more Read less. K; Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed.
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